Monthly Archives: June 2017


Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that affects around 20% of patients in the hospital. It is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L. It may […]


Normal sodium levels in the human blood are between 135-145mEq/L. Hypernatremia is characterized by sodium values over 145mEq/L. CAUSES: Increases in osmolality (that may result from deficit of water or […]

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Hemorrhagic strokes comprise 10-20% of all strokes. About half of the hemorrhagic strokes manifests as subarachnoid hemorrhages, and the other half manifests as intracerebral hemorrhage. The incidence is ~15/100.000 cases-year. […]

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by bleeding into the subarachnoid space (between the pia and arachnoid mater). Half of the hemorrhagic strokes are subarachnoid hemorrhages, and its overall incidence is […]

Ischemic stroke: Diagnosis and treatment

An ischemic stroke is characterized by an injury of the brain parenchyma due to lack of oxygen. It usually manifests as one or more acute neurological deficits. Every year around […]