Acute aortic dissection

Acute aortic dissection is a dramatic situation in which the intima wall of the aorta suffers a tear and blood leeks through the other layers, creating a hematoma that can […]


Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that affects around 20% of patients in the hospital. It is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L. It may […]


Normal sodium levels in the human blood are between 135-145mEq/L. Hypernatremia is characterized by sodium values over 145mEq/L. CAUSES: Increases in osmolality (that may result from deficit of water or […]

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Hemorrhagic strokes comprise 10-20% of all strokes. About half of the hemorrhagic strokes manifests as subarachnoid hemorrhages, and the other half manifests as intracerebral hemorrhage. The incidence is ~15/100.000 cases-year. […]

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by bleeding into the subarachnoid space (between the pia and arachnoid mater). Half of the hemorrhagic strokes are subarachnoid hemorrhages, and its overall incidence is […]