Critical Care

Acute Kidney Injury

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is the name used for a situation in which there is an acute decline in kidney function. This decline is often temporary and reversible if treated, […]


Rhabdomyolysis is a condition characterized by massive muscle cell breakdown with the release of the cellular contents on the bloodstream and adjacent tissue. The substances released further increase the inflammation […]


Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that affects around 20% of patients in the hospital. It is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L. It may […]


Normal sodium levels in the human blood are between 135-145mEq/L. Hypernatremia is characterized by sodium values over 145mEq/L. CAUSES: Increases in osmolality (that may result from deficit of water or […]

Ischemic stroke: Diagnosis and treatment

An ischemic stroke is characterized by an injury of the brain parenchyma due to lack of oxygen. It usually manifests as one or more acute neurological deficits. Every year around […]