Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as a chronic reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in a GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. More than 660 thousand Americans have kidney failure, […]

Acute Kidney Injury

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is the name used for a situation in which there is an acute decline in kidney function. This decline is often temporary and reversible if treated, […]


Rhabdomyolysis is a condition characterized by massive muscle cell breakdown with the release of the cellular contents on the bloodstream and adjacent tissue. The substances released further increase the inflammation […]

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis is a common cause of secondary hypertension and it can present in 0.5-5% of all hypertensive patients. In patients with systemic atherosclerosis the prevalence can be even higher, […]

Primary aldosteronism (primary hyperaldosteronism)

Primary aldosteronism (aka primary hyperaldosteronism) is a condition in which too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands. Its prevalence is unknown, but some studies suggest that it may […]