Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that affects around 20% of patients in the hospital. It is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L. It may […]


Normal sodium levels in the human blood are between 135-145mEq/L. Hypernatremia is characterized by sodium values over 145mEq/L. CAUSES: Increases in osmolality (that may result from deficit of water or […]


Normal levels of phosphorus are between 2.5 to 4.5mg/dL (0.81-1.45 mmol/L). Hyperphosphatemia is characterized by phosphate levels above 4.5mg/dL (>1.46mmol/L). CAUSES: Shift from intracellular – >extracellular: Rhabdomyolysis Tumor lysis Acute […]

Hypophosphatemia: Diagnosis and treatment

Hypophosphatemia is the low level of phosphorus on the bloodstream. Normal levels of phosphorus are between 2.5 to 4.5mg/dL. Hypophosphatemia (levels < 2.5mg/dL) may be present in up to 5% […]


Hyperkalemia is defined as a high serum concentration of potassium (>5 mEq/L). It may be classified as mild (5.1-6 mEq/L), moderate (6.1-7 mEq/L) or severe (>7 mEq/L). It is a […]